The Different Methods of PCB Fabrication

Preparing a PCB for mounting is one of the most important processes of making an electronic device. Without it, you will not be able to do anything with the board. There are four different methods on PCB fabrication. This includes etching, direct plating, copper removal, and send out. Each one of them has an elaborate process to follow so it is best to have a brief knowledge about these methods, especially if you are planning to make an electronic project.

1. Etching

PCB Fabrication This method is the simplest one. It is also the lowest costing method because it only requires several materials in order to effectively make a PCB. In this method, a certain chemical is used to erode unneeded conductor surface, usually cooper. Removing the unneeded copper surface is important because it prevent circuit problems. The most common problem in electronics is short-circuiting devices, and it stops the device from functioning.

In this method of PCB fabrication, you mask the portions of the copper surface that you want to remain. You can do this by using different chemical resistant materials to draw the design of the schematic diagram. For the chemicals, you can use either ferric Chloride or Ammonium Persulphate.

Ferric Chloride is one of the most effective chemicals. It is also the strongest chemical to use. However, you should be careful while using this. You need to be in an environment in which your prized metal possessions are out of reach because it eats any metals. It is also messy as it stains surfaces and clothes. The most ideal type of Ferric Chloride is the hexahydrate. It can be bought in the form of granules. The way to use it is to dissolve the granules in warm water.

Ammonium Persulphate is another chemical specifically used for corroding copper surfaces. This way, your other metal items would not be eaten by the chemical. It is the most efficient and advisable material to use in etching because it does not stain, it rises quickly, and etches rapidly. However, once this solution has been mixed, it needs to be used within 3 weeks. You should be also careful of materials made of cotton, wool, linen, and other natural fibers because it can destroy those.

2. Direct Plating

This method is used in big manufacturing sites. It needs the use of heavy-duty machines. Because of this, it is more ideal in factories due to the price.

3. Copper Removal

This is another method of PCB fabrication that is very expensive. A cutter plotter and PCB layout software is utilized in order to directly imprint the needed copper connections on the board. This technique is very slow and is commonly used in making prototypes of newly designed gadgets.

4. Send Out

Pcb-FabricationThis method is the fastest. This way, you design a schematic diagram on a digital device. The data is then sent out to a PCB fabrication company. However, you need to make sure that the data include all necessary information such as the layout, drawings, and specifications. You must also know the requirements that the chosen company (or Board House) imposes.

This method is hassle free on the part of the sender. It is the most ideal for mass production as the manufacturers handle the fabrication in a fast and easy way. However, if you want to order several pieces, it is not the advised method because it will cost you more. A minimum quantity should be reached before you could place an order.

Despite it being expensive, the send out method results to high quality, professional PCBs that you can develop into a more elaborate device.

Tips On Creating Great Designs For Iron On Patches

As we’ve learned firsthand, people who order iron on patches commonly provide their own designs. Click here to know more about iron on patches. It could either be their own design or a logo they already have for their organization or company. Submitting your own logo or design can help you save time from revisions and can cut the duration of processing your orders.

Iron-on-patchesHowever, if you do not know how to create your own designs, there is no reason to worry since you can opt for online stores that are able to create designs for your company or organization. Most manufacturers offer this feature for free but it will cost time especially if the person who placed the order is choosy when it comes to designs.

Clarifying Your Designs

If you opt to have the manufacturer create a design for your iron on patches, you must be clear about how you want them to look. Failing to do so can result to orders that are not according to what you prefer. This is not much of a deal though since most companies won’t start manufacturing your patches unless you approve the sample of the design they created for you.

Patch stores do not usually require a camera-ready artwork. You can simply submit your sketch and it will be fine. They will create a sample of it and send the photo to you for your approval. If you cannot provide a sketch, a written description will be acceptable as well since they have specialists that can produce designs just the way you like them.

Shapes And Borders

The most sought out shapes of custom patches are the regular ones such as circle, oval, square and rectangle. If you are planning to apply a custom shape to your iron on patches, you must give it a go since most manufacturers are able to apply irregular shapes into the patches they create. They apply laser cut edge to these kinds of shapes in order to avoid messy borders.


You can simply draw the shape you want your patches to have and submit it to the manufacturer of your choice if you want to. If you are fond of traditional or regular shaped patches, merrow edge is what you can expect them to have since this is the type of border that is commonly applied to them.

Have Contrast

In order to make your patches noticeable, it is crucial to be certain that your details and lettering are as visible as possible. Your design must have a good contrast in order to emphasize the message, image and each content that is in it.

If your details or letters have a dark color, the background of your design must be a light color and vice versa. For instance, the contents of your emblems will not be highly visible or can be difficult to understand if they are light blue in color and has a yellow background. Red or black details will not be understandable on a royal blue background either.

Lettering Sizes

In order to convey your emphasis, the main lettering on your iron on patches must be large and bold. The shortest ideal height of letters for a 3-inch patch is ¼ inch. A 4-inch patch should have a 5/16 inch lettering or taller. The lettering of 5-inch patches should be at least 3/8 inch. This is just for the main lettering.

Iron on patchesYour other lettering can be smaller but you have to keep in mind that embroidered letterings look best if they are at least ¼ inch in height. Smaller letterings can look clear as well but the ones that are ¼ inch or taller appear sharper. Letterings that are just 1/8 inch in height are highly discouraged.

There are countless ways to design your patches but it is important to keep the quality and readability in mind in doing so. We know that this guideline can help you convey the message you want your iron on patches to have. By following this, you can be certain that your patches will not just look like a mess on your garment.

Here we are sharing some tips for creating your own iron on patches with unique designs. For more information visit

Tips For Keynote Speakers

It’s not always easy for keynote speakers to be as persuasive on stage as they want to be. But that doesn’t mean that you can no longer develop your ability to speak in front of a crowd.

Here are a few guidelines that you can keep in mind when you are asked to be a keynote speaker:

1. Avoid reading your speech. It’s not enticing to listen to a speaker who reads what he says.

2. In order to prevent being tempted to read your speech, take time to memorize and rehearse your piece. Spend an hour each day to deliver your speech in front of the mirror. This will help you internalize your message and check your facial expression and body

3. Provide facts. Share it in an interesting way so the people will remember it.

4. Allow yourself to be vulnerable. Sharing your weakness with your audience doesn’t make you weak. It makes you appear genuine and that is enough to hook your listeners’ attention.

5. Most keynote speakers hire an excellent copywriter to refine their drafts. You don’t really have to pay someone to write your entire speech but your money will be well spent if you hire an expert to refine your key points. To know more about speakers visit motivational-speaker-success

Keynote Speaker

6. Always strive to be humorous. You can have the attention of your audience longer if you can make them smile or laugh.

7. Make sure that your audience can understand what you are talking about. It’s hard to capture and stir people’s emotions if you keep on talking big words.

8. If you’re using a slide presentation, make sure that it is a combination of graphics and texts. Images will help people to stay focused on what you are saying than trying to read.

9. Make sure to provide the overall purpose of the event. This seems obvious but there are many keynote speakers who are just selling themselves. Successful keynote speakers achieve positive feedback and get invited again because they always make sure that they stick to the theme.

10. Avoid using too many props. A few props can help emphasize your point but too much of a good thing can’t do you any good.

11. If you plan to have a question-and-answer segment, don’t end your speech with it. Always make it a point that you wrap up the message and conclude with your final words to create a lasting impact.

12. Usually, the best way to end a speech is by leaving the audience with at least 2 questions. You may want to ask them to write down the questions and answer when they get home just like an assignment.

Keynote Speakers

Keep in mind:

• Make time to check your speaking tools a day before the event. Contact your organizer about the microphone, projector, and other stuff that you need. It would be great if you can arrive a few hours earlier on the venue to make sure that everything you need is in
• Your audience may consist of people from different ages. Make sure to provide enough key points that can meet the needs of varying ages.
• Don’t forget to ask the organizers about the theme and purpose of the event.
• Learn about the attendees. Are they coming from the same organization? Will there be visitors from other cities or countries?
• People usually sit at the back. If you notice empty chairs in front of the venue, kindly ask the audience to occupy them.
• If possible, talk with the audience after the event. It will help them feel more connected with you, which is a great way to make a lasting impression.
These tips were used by successful keynote speakers. Follow them and see how effective they are.


In the 18th of December 2013, Callaway golf Company released to the international market the much awaited golf balls (tour levels) that are meticulously designed and specifically intended for more speed, power and distance for every golf player’s swing for maximum performance. These golf balls are called the Callaway Speed Regime golf balls. They are available in three types:

• The first type of Speed Regime golf balls is the SR1

This type of golf balls are intended to produce peak performance for ninety (90) miles per hour and below swing speeds.

  1. This will be very beneficial to golf players who have very high swinging speeds. How? Remember that when the golf player swings the ball in low speed, it is not usually restrained or hampered by the force of drag. As such, there is no need to minimize its effects. Instead, the Callaway golf company focused on developing an aero dynamic technology that will provide a good lift at lower speeds when the golf ball is about to descend to the ground. As such, the priority in SR1 is to make the golf ball stay in the air for as long as possible in order to improve the distance that it will reach.

callaway golf ball

• The second type of Speed Regime golf balls is the SR2

This type of golf balls are intended to produce maximum performance for ninety (90) miles per hour to one hundred five (105) miles per hour swing speeds.

  1. This will be very beneficial to golf players who have medium swinging speed. How? Remember that when the golf player swings the ball in medium speed, it is restrained by the force of drag (not as much as in very high speeds just off the tee) and at the same time bad lift at low speeds (when the ball is already descending). As such, the Callaway company focused on developing an aero dynamic technology that will strike a balance between minimizing the effects of drag (just off the tee) and maximizing good lift at low speeds (when the ball is about to descend to the ground).

• The third type of Speed Regime golf balls is the SR3

This type of golf balls are intended to produce the highest levels of performance for one hundred five (105) miles per hour and above swing speeds.

  1. callaway golf balls

    This will be very beneficial to golf players who have very high swinging speed. How? Remember that when a high speed swinging player hit the golf ball, the said golf ball is unnecessarily restrained or hampered just off the tee by the force of drag. Hence, the distance that can be reached by the golf ball is significantly reduced. Thus, the Callaway Company intended to combat this problem by developing a technology that effectively minimizes the effects of drag forces using aero dynamics. In this way, the SR3 golf ball will reach more distance.

The three different SRs are important because golf players have different swinging speeds. In order to deal with this fact, the Callaway golf company developed an exciting technology called the HEX Aerodynamics which is included in every Speed Regime golf ball package distributed throughout the world.

According to the company, they highly recommend that future users of the Speed Regime try out the golf balls in different courses before purchasing them. In this way, they will feel and see the advantages that the Speed Regime golf balls offer to every golf player.

Moreover, the Callaway golf company stated that starting 24th of January, 2014, the Speed Regime balls will be available throughout the United States and through online retailers.
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Great Tips Content Writers Should Know To Provide Quality Online Content

The quality of content that content writers produce is very important for the advancement of their career. As a content writer writing for web-based media, you should always keep in mind that the content that you write penshould cater to the online audience. Why? Because online readers are totally different compared to those people who read offline content such as magazines, brochures, newspaper, etc. With that being said, here are great tips on how to write for an online audience that all content writers should know about.
Always Have Your Audience in Mind

Each website or webpage caters to a specific type of online audience; a niche. Content writers who are writing for a specific website should take into account the type of niche that website is catering to. For example, if you’re writing content for an automobile manufacturer, it is yourKeeping-Your-Audience-in-Mind job as the content writer to make sure that every piece of article, essay, news, or any type of content for that matter, relates to the automotive industry. It is the content writer’s job to know what the audience likes to read about and then write topics based on those likes.

Writing about the audience’s interest allows you to connect with them effectively. This will also prompt the audience to come back to the website since you’re providing them with information that is useful for them.

Keep your sentences short and your paragraphs short

This particular tip is very useful, especially for online readers. Most people who go online don’t have time to sit down and read about certain things all day. What they want is to find what they’re looking for quick. What this means for content writers is that they should provide the important information directly, in small paragraphs and short sentences. This significantly helps the reader absorb the information much faster so that he or she can move on to the next task at hand.

Make use of Bullets points and Subheadings

As we’ve mentioned before, online readers want to find the information that they’re looking for, quick and easy. Most people, when they read an article, they want to be able to scan the whole document easily and see if the particular information that they’re looking for is there. bullet-point-1-5And what easy way to provide the readers with that ability than by making use of subheadings and bullet points. With subheadings and bullets points, a reader is able to find out what the document is all about, and see if the information that they’re looking for is there.

Your Content Should be Able To Answer a Reader’s Question

Most online readers do online searches to answer the questions that they have in mind. What better way to attract readers to your website than to write about the animated-question-mark-clip-art-pink-clipart-panda-free-clipart-vXMXWq-clipartanswer to some of these questions. Remember, readers will never hesitate to move on to another website or webpage if they can’t find the right answers to their questions.

Always Write Content That Urges Readers To Take Action

Content writers should write content that urges readers to take action once they find the information that they are looking for. Why? Because most online readers need to be guided. They need to be convinced that taking this or that particular action is for their best interest. This “call to action” usually comes after you’ve provided the reader with the information that they need. After you’ve provided them with the answers to their questions, most readers have no clue as to what would be the next step to take. This is where your “call to action” comes in. You need to show them how to move onto the next part of the solution, which usually involves purchasing a service or a product.